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Standing the Test of Time

These pages present informational materials that continue to be relevant and useful over time, even though they date back five years or more.  The contents provide a perspective over time of the issue of wireless technologies, electromagnetic radiation, and their biological effects.

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Jan 13

Radiofrequency/Microwave Radiation Biological Effects and Safety Standards: A Review

STILL HOT (1988) - U.S. Air Force Declassified Information

Scott M. Bolen, Rome Laboratory, Air Force Material Command, Griffis Air Force Base, New York


"The study of human exposure to radiofrequency/microwave radiation has been the subject of widespread investigation and analysis. It is known that electromagnetic radiation has a biological effect on human tissue. An attempt has been made by researchers to quantify the effects of radiation on the human body and to set guidelines for safe exposure levels. A review of the pertinent findings is present along with the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) recommended safety standard (C95.1-1982) and the United States Air Force permissible exposure limit for RF/MW radiation (AFOSH Standard 161-9, 12 February 1987).

"An overview of research that was conducted in the Soviet union and Eastern Europe is also included in this report. . . .

May 1

Electrosmog in the Environment (Switzerland)

Swiss Agency for the Environment, Forests and Landscape (SAEFL) June 2005

"Electricity supply systems, electrical appliances and a wide range of transmitters for various wireless applications generate non-ionising radiation (commonly referred to as "electrosmog")  that can be harmful to our health, depending on its intensity. With its Ordinance relating to Protection from Non-Ionising Radiation, the Federal Council introduced a legal instrument to protect the population against the harmful effects of electrosmog. 

"This publication describes the main sources of electrosmog, assesses the associated risks, identifies existing gaps in research and suggests ways in which we can reduce our own level of exposure." 

Feb 18

26+ years later and here we are, still questioning whether or not this very technology even exists! Just IMAGINE how far more advanced things are today . . .

Sep 6

"Released in 2000, Public Exposure is the first - and still definitive - independently produced investigative report on this key issue, the human health dangers of Radio Frequency Radiation (RFR) from cell phones & cell towers... and what we can do to protect ourselves.

"Broadcast on LinkTV and in constant use by community groups and concerned citizens around the world, with thousands of DVD copies sold, we now make the authorized one-hour version of Public Exposure available on-line for the first time. DVD copies are available for purchase here:  http://www.eon3.net/emr_protection/docs/public_exposure.html

"First Place award, EarthVision Film Festival.
Co-Produced by EON's Mary Beth Brangan and Libby Kelley of the Council on Wireless Technology Impacts www.energyfields.org

Directed and edited by EON's James Heddle.

Sep 1

Professor Olle Johansson's list of Authorities who have studied and reported on the effects of microwave radiation.

Mar 8

Electromagnetic Fields from Mobile Phones: Health Effect on Children and Teenagers


This Resolution was approved by members of the Russian National Committee on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (RNCNIRP) at its Committee session on 3 March 2011. The Resolution evolved from scientific statements adopted by RNCNIRP in 2001, 2004, 2007, 2008 and 2009, taking into account contemporary views and actual scientific data. The Resolution represents a viewpoint of the professional scientific community and is meant for public dissemination, for the consumers of the mobile telecommunications services, as well as for the legislative and executive authorities who develop and implement health protection, environmental, communication, scientific and safety policies.

Nov 16

Bee World

Ulrich Warnke's Effects of Electric Charges on Honeybees (STILL HOT 1976)

Charges on the body of an individual bee and on the colony

Environmental Influences

  • Electric Field 
  • Atmospheric Ions 
  • Humidity and Temperature 
  • Light Irradiation  
Changes in Behaviour brought about by electric parameters 
Mechanics of these effects 
Weather sensitivity of bees


Nov 16


(STILL HOT) Final Study: Working document for the STOA Panel March 2001

European Parliament
Directorate General for Research
Division Industry, Research and Energy
Scientific and Technological Options Assessment

This study focuses upon an aspect of how living organisms and humans in particular can be adversely affected by highly coherent electromagnetic fields of technological origin, in a way that is not entertained or addressed by existing Safety Guidelines - namely, through the possibility of non- thermal, frequency-specific influences of an informational nature. Supporting evidence is presented, and attention drawn to a disturbing consistency between some of these influences and the nature of certain adverse health effects found amongst some exposed people. On the basis of a detailed analysis of the present situation, a number of recommendations are made to promote a higher degree of electromagnetic biocompatibility between these fields and the living human organism than currently obtains.

Sep 13

Evidence that Electromagnetic Radiation is Genotoxic (STILL HOT)

Dr. Neil Cherry: The implications for the epidemiology of cancer and cardiac, neurological and reproductive effects (June 2000)

Dr Neil Cherry, for presentations in May 2000 to NZ Parliament and June 2000 in Italy, Austria, Ireland and at the European Parliament in Brussels. Environmental Management and Design Division P.O. Box 84 Lincoln University Canterbury, New Zealand

"Our frame of reference determines what we look at and how we look. And as a consequence, this determines what we find." Burke J, The Day the Universe Changed, 1985.


  • Introduction 
  • Principles of Approach 
  • EMR Spectrum Principle 
  • The Bioelectrical nature of biology 
  • Neurological Electrical Sensitivity 
  • Electromagnetic activity in cells 
  • Cardiac Electrical Sensitivity 
  • Genotoxicity 
  • Direct measurements of Chromosome aberrations 
  • Chromosome damage from RF/MW exposure 
  • Chromosome damage from ELF exposure
  • Chromosome Aberrations Conclusions 
  • Direct evidence of neoplasm in microwave exposed cells 
  • Direct evidence of DNA strand breakage 
  • Motorola Funded Counter Research on DNA breakage 
  • Differences between Lai and Singh and Malyapa et al. 
  • The Comet Assay and EMR effects 
  • ELF Exposure and DNA strand breakage 
  • EMR Altered Gene Activity 
  • Immune system impairment by EMR 
  • EMR Reduces Melatonin in Animals and People 
  • Genotoxicity Conclusions 
  • Epidemiological dose-response relationships from RF/MW exposures 
  • "Classic" RF/MW studies 
  • Global Leukaemia dose response for RF/MW exposure 
  • Study Reference Exposure Leukaemia Risk 95% Confidence 
  • Childhood Cancer in the vicinity of the Sutra Tower, San Francisco 
  • Neurological effects 
  • Sleep Disturbance near a Shortwave Radio Tower, Schwarzenburg, Switzerland 
  • Multiple Sclerosis in Danish Electric Utility Workers 
  • Suicide in U.S. Electric Utility Workers 
  • Brain Tumour with VDT exposure 
  • Natural EMR Sensitivity of the Human brain 
  • Cardiac Effects of EMR 
  • Miscarriage in microwave exposed Physiotherapists, United States 
  • Conclusions 
  • Cell Phone Conclusions 
  • References

Aug 31

Radiofrequency Interference with Medical Devices (IEEE)

COMAR Technical Information Statement

IEEE stands for "Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers."  COMAR stands for "Committee on Man and Radiation."  This article was published in Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine 17(3):111-114 (1998)

IEEE Code of Ethics  

"The past few years have seen increased reports that medical devices, such as pacemakers, apnea monitors, electrically powered wheelchairs, etc., have failed to operate correctly because of interference from various emitters of radiofrequency energy. This condition is called radiofrequency interference (RFI). The consequences of these failures range from inconvenience to serious injuries and death. Reasons for this problem are twofold:

1) increasing numbers of electronically controlled medical devices with inadequate electronic protection against RFI, and

2) a significant increase in the number of RF sources in the environment.

Medical devices are widely used outside the hospital and may be attached to, or implanted in, patients. Portable wireless communications equipment, including cellular phones, handheld transceivers, and vehicle mounted transceivers, comprise one of the largest sources of RFI. Some medical devices are especially sensitive to the type of digital modulation that some of the wireless communications devices utilize.

". . . Technology exists to protect, or "harden," most medical devices from RF fields that are much more intense than the 3 V/m level specified in present RFI standards. Most of these techniques, including shielding, grounding and filtering, are not costly if they are incorporated into the initial design of the electronics system. "COMAR recommends that the various parties involved in the manufacture and use of RFI prone medical devices take steps to avoid serious RFI problems that may lead to safety hazards. Medical device manufacturers should design and test their products to ensure conformance with current RFI standards and educate the users of their devices about the possible symptoms of potential RFI. If there exists the possibility of RFI problems to medical devices, steps should be taken to ensure that all sources of RF energy be kept at a sufficient distance . . .

INTRODUCTION "Since the early 1990s, reports of medical device failure from electromagnetic interference have increased. This is due to several factors. The number of electronically controlled medical devices has burgeoned in hospitals and other medical facilities. Newer instruments are often more sensitive to radiofrequency interference (RFI) because they incorporate low power integrated electronic circuitry that can be much more sensitive to electromagnetic fields than their electrical and electromechanical predecessors. In this document, RFI refers to radiated interference from electromagnetic fields that are coupled from a source to a medical device through the air (i.e. without connections via conductors such as wires or cables).

"There has also been a significant rise in the use of electronically controlled medical devices outside the clinical environment. These devices are often used in homes, attached to patients, or implanted in their bodies. In addition, portable wireless communications equipment, such as cellular phones, handheld transceivers, and vehicle mounted transceivers, is a major source of RFI. The number of land mobile transmitters in the US alone currently exceeds 10 million and personal communications systems are burgeoning throughout the world. To an ever increasing extent, wireless communications equipment (e.g., cellular phones) is likely to be used in close proximity to medical devices without the knowledge of the patient or attending medical personnel.

"Digital mobile communications systems often utilize pulsed amplitude modulation, a type of modulation, that can enhance the potential for RFI. For example, cellular telephones based on some digital technologies generate peak powers of up to 8 watts and are modulated at 2 to 217 pulses per second. This range spans the physiological frequencies of the human body, from about 0.5 Hz to several hundred Hz, that are monitored by many medical devices. This is often termed the "physiological passband." While modulation at very low frequencies is critical, this document does not address RFI from sources with very low carrier frequencies. Thus, AC power line fields (50-60 Hz) are excluded from discussion. Also excluded are transient fields, such as pulsed gradient fields from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems, where most of the frequency content is below a few MHz. The frequencies discussed in this statement are in the range of 30 to 3,000 MHz . . ."

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